Category Archives: Cyst Popping Images

Image from page 127 of “The Biological bulletin”

Image from page 127 of “The Biological bulletin”
Title: The Biological bulletin
Identifier: biologicalbullet182mari
Year: (s)
Authors: Marine Biological Laboratory (Woods Hole, Mass. ); Marine Biological Laboratory (Woods Hole, Mass. ). Annual report 1907/08-1952; Lillie, Frank Rattray, 1870-1947; Moore, Carl Richard, 1892-; Redfield, Alfred Clarence, 1890-1983
Subjects: Biology; Zoology; Biology; Marine Biology
Publisher: Woods Hole, Mass. : Marine Biological Laboratory
Contributing Library: MBLWHOI Library
Digitizing Sponsor: MBLWHOI Library

View Book Page: Book Viewer
About This Book: Catalog Entry
View All Images: All Images From Book

Click here to view book online to see this illustration in context in a browseable online version of this book.

Text Appearing Before Image:
114 J. WILLIAMS-HOWZE AND B. C. COULL O o 6 30 25 20 15 10

Text Appearing After Image:
SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG MONTHS Figure 5. Mean number of free-living male and female copepods taken from the cores during the field study. Core samples were taken once a month for twelve months. Number per 10 cnr is the unit of density for meiobenthos, in contrast to number per rrr used for macrobenthos. Error bars are one standard deviation of mean. opment than the hot treatment regime. Copepodites nor- mally reach adulthood in early summer (April-May) in the field, and encyst during summer months only (Fig. 4). Greater total number of cysts in the hot treatments (81 Hot-LD, 117 Hot-SD) versus the cold treatments (48 Cold-LD, 51 Cold-SD) were probably due to increased rates of development. The high number of encystment events in the hot-short day was unexpected, particularly because longer photoperiod has been implicated as the main cue triggering summer dormancy in other copepods (Watson and Smallman, 197la, b; Sarvala, 1979). Not all of the sexually immature adult H. nunni en- cysted. In most treatment dishes there were mating and reproducing free-living copepods throughout the entire 23 weeks, along with encysted individuals; this was un- expected, because no free-living forms have been found in the summer (Coull and Grant, 1981, and Fig. 5). Coull and Grant (1981) hypothesized that the free-living pop- ulation either moved to another area, or all members en- cysted. The calanoid copepod Diaptomus sangiiineus produces diapausing and subitaneous eggs sequentially during the same reproductive period, and Hairston and Munns (1984) suggested that it was using a bet-hedging strategy (sensu Stearns, 1976), anticipating that an envi- ronmental catastrophe would not occur or would be less severe than expected. Reproductive success could then be insured in either situation. In harpacticoid and cyclopoid copepods, such a bet-hedging strategy is generally not used, because the diapausing stage is not an egg, but an indi- vidual (i.e., either copepodite or adult). If the adult is the diapausing organism insuring reproductive success (as opposed to dispersed diapausing eggs), a bet-hedging strategy would not be expected (Hairston, 1987). However, we found free-living harpacticoids along with the encysted ones, as did Cole (1953) and Sarvala (1979). Perhaps these free-living forms are also bet-hedgers, taking the chance that they will not be negatively affected in their non-dia- pause state. Our inability to find such proposed bet-hedg- ers in the field (i.e., free-living H. nunni in the summer) may be a function of them occurring in very low abun- dance. In our laboratory experiment there were consistently more males than females, both in cysts and free-living. These findings are very different from those of Sarvala (1979), who observed that Canthocamptus staphylinus males were absent from cysts. However, in the cyclopoid Cyclops victims and Thermocyclops crassits, more males than females emerge from diapause (George, 1973, and Maier, 1989, respectively). The initial data on H. nunni (Coull and Grant, 1981) indicated a female to male ratio in the cysts of 2.3:1, but over an 11-year sampling period, the female-to-male ratio for free-living H. nunni was 1.6: 1 (Coull and Dudley, 1985). Males within cysts outnum- bered females by at least 2:1 in the laboratory (Fig. 3). For copepods, a sex ratio other than 1:1 indicates a shift in sexual selection pressure. Male dominance in this ex- periment may be a laboratory effect, as excessive homo- zygosity leads to shifting of the sex ratio in favor of males (Hicks and Coull, 1983). An imbalanced ratio could be due to homogeneity of the environment (i.e., small culture dishes), which favors inbreeding, and results in a more homogeneous population. Population density can also

Note About Images
Please note that these images are extracted from scanned page images that may have been digitally enhanced for readability – coloration and appearance of these illustrations may not perfectly resemble the original work.
By Internet Archive Book Images on 1825-01-01 00:00:00
tags

Image from page 122 of “Coast watch” (1979)

Image from page 122 of “Coast watch” (1979)
Title: Coast watch
Identifier: coastwatch00uncs_8
Year: 1979 (1970s)
Authors: UNC Sea Grant College Program
Subjects: Marine resources; Oceanography; Coastal zone management; Coastal ecology
Publisher: [Raleigh, N. C. : UNC Sea Grant College Program]
Contributing Library: State Library of North Carolina
Digitizing Sponsor: North Carolina Digital Heritage Center

View Book Page: Book Viewer
About This Book: Catalog Entry
View All Images: All Images From Book

Click here to view book online to see this illustration in context in a browseable online version of this book.

Text Appearing Before Image:
In a process called "overwinter- ing," some baby land turtles stay in the nest all through fall and winter. Although the turtles may hatch, says Braswell, they won’t leave the nest. Instead, they feed off the yolk material left from their eggs and let their metabolisms slow. On the seafloor, the jellyfish settles down to wait. For the sea nettle, a jellyfish found in all saline waters of North Carolina, life begins as a larva. By the late fall and

Text Appearing After Image:
winter, these larvae have settled to the bottom of the ocean and formed polyps. A polyp is the waiting, benthic — or bottom — stage of the jellyfish’s life cycle. If temperatures get too cold, the polyp can squeeze into a cyst, waiting for the weather to warm. Each polyp can produce more polyps, or it can break into thin saucerlike divi- sions. In the spring, each saucer slowly floats to the surface, popping up as the bell-shaped, many-tentacled "medusa" that sends swimmers screeching. North Carolina has nine types of jellyfish and two comb jellies. Although most have a polyp stage and a medusa stage, these stages vary from season to season. Although the sea nettle lies low as a polyp in late fall and winter, the lion’s mane rises as a medusa. The cycle depends on what type of wind, waves, temperature and food each jellyfish prefers. Oysters also take a break. All summer oysters have been spawning — pumping out billions of oyster larvae. In the fall, they begin to lay in fat for the winter and add to their shells. Fall and winter are prime times for oyster harvests, as the oysters get fat and tasty. In the summer, the oysters use up their fat stores as they begin to spawn again and become more watery. Most folks associate hibernation with bears, but bumblebees do it too. In the late summer or fall, queen bees seek a sheltered place to spend the winter. They hide in cavities of old walls, under fallen logs or moss, or an inch or so underground. After mating in late summer, the bumblebees stay in their hideaways until the next spring. This period can last as long as nine months. Because the queen bee stays hidden longer than the average winter hibernation, her beauty sleep is correctly called a diapause. Unlike honeybees, bumblebees form new colonies every year. Through- , out the spring and early summer, the queen bee has been laying eggs. These hatch into worker bees — males and females that gather food and tend to the queen. Around midsummer, the bumblebee queens "stop producing worker bees and start producing reproductives," says Stephen Bambara, an N.C. State University entomology extension specialist. "Reproductives" are the bees that will mate. After mating, the large females, or queen bees, will dia- pause. The males, remaining workers and even older queen bees will eventually die off. Next spring, the new queen bee will lay her eggs and begin building a new colony all by herself. Another insect in hiding this fall is the spider-killer wasp. Through- out the summer, this big bug catches and paralyzes spiders. In the fall, the wasps lay their eggs on top of the spiders in a sand dune burrow. When the eggs hatch, the immatures survive the winter in the burrow, feeding on the spider. Adult spider-killer wasps spend the winter underground or in their own burrows.

Note About Images
Please note that these images are extracted from scanned page images that may have been digitally enhanced for readability – coloration and appearance of these illustrations may not perfectly resemble the original work.
By Internet Archive Book Images on 1979-01-01 00:00:00
tags

Image from page 122 of “Coast watch” (1979)

Image from page 122 of “Coast watch” (1979)
Title: Coast watch
Identifier: coastwatch00uncs_8
Year: 1979 (1970s)
Authors: UNC Sea Grant College Program
Subjects: Marine resources; Oceanography; Coastal zone management; Coastal ecology
Publisher: [Raleigh, N. C. : UNC Sea Grant College Program]
Contributing Library: State Library of North Carolina
Digitizing Sponsor: North Carolina Digital Heritage Center

View Book Page: Book Viewer
About This Book: Catalog Entry
View All Images: All Images From Book

Click here to view book online to see this illustration in context in a browseable online version of this book.

Text Appearing Before Image:
winter, these larvae have settled to the bottom of the ocean and formed polyps. A polyp is the waiting, benthic — or bottom — stage of the jellyfish’s life cycle. If temperatures get too cold, the polyp can squeeze into a cyst, waiting for the weather to warm. Each polyp can produce more polyps, or it can break into thin saucerlike divi- sions. In the spring, each saucer slowly floats to the surface, popping up as the bell-shaped, many-tentacled "medusa" that sends swimmers screeching. North Carolina has nine types of jellyfish and two comb jellies. Although most have a polyp stage and a medusa stage, these stages vary from season to season. Although the sea nettle lies low as a polyp in late fall and winter, the lion’s mane rises as a medusa. The cycle depends on what type of wind, waves, temperature and food each jellyfish prefers. Oysters also take a break. All summer oysters have been spawning — pumping out billions of oyster larvae. In the fall, they begin to lay in fat for the winter and add to their shells. Fall and winter are prime times for oyster harvests, as the oysters get fat and tasty. In the summer, the oysters use up their fat stores as they begin to spawn again and become more watery. Most folks associate hibernation with bears, but bumblebees do it too. In the late summer or fall, queen bees seek a sheltered place to spend the winter. They hide in cavities of old walls, under fallen logs or moss, or an inch or so underground. After mating in late summer, the bumblebees stay in their hideaways until the next spring. This period can last as long as nine months. Because the queen bee stays hidden longer than the average winter hibernation, her beauty sleep is correctly called a diapause. Unlike honeybees, bumblebees form new colonies every year. Through- , out the spring and early summer, the queen bee has been laying eggs. These hatch into worker bees — males and females that gather food and tend to the queen. Around midsummer, the bumblebee queens "stop producing worker bees and start producing reproductives," says Stephen Bambara, an N.C. State University entomology extension specialist. "Reproductives" are the bees that will mate. After mating, the large females, or queen bees, will dia- pause. The males, remaining workers and even older queen bees will eventually die off. Next spring, the new queen bee will lay her eggs and begin building a new colony all by herself. Another insect in hiding this fall is the spider-killer wasp. Through- out the summer, this big bug catches and paralyzes spiders. In the fall, the wasps lay their eggs on top of the spiders in a sand dune burrow. When the eggs hatch, the immatures survive the winter in the burrow, feeding on the spider. Adult spider-killer wasps spend the winter underground or in their own burrows.

Text Appearing After Image:
In 1947, naturalist and Pulitzer prizewinner Edwin Way Teale and his wife Nellie began the first of four trips around the United States. These trips were arranged by the seasons. In 1956, Teale published the second of four books resulting from those trips: Autumn Across America. "These are the seasons of constant change," writes Teale. "Like dawn and dusk they are periods of transition. But like night and day and day and night they merge slowly, gradually." COASTWATCH 5

Note About Images
Please note that these images are extracted from scanned page images that may have been digitally enhanced for readability – coloration and appearance of these illustrations may not perfectly resemble the original work.
By Internet Archive Book Images on 1979-01-01 00:00:00
tags

Image from page 706 of “Operative gynecology :” (1906)

Image from page 706 of “Operative gynecology :” (1906)
Identifier: operativegynecol001kell
Title: Operative gynecology :
Year: 1906 (1900s)
Authors: Kelly, Howard A. (Howard Atwood), 1858-1943
Subjects: Gynecology Gynecology Gynecologic Surgical Procedures
Publisher: New York and London : D. Appleton and company
Contributing Library: Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine
Digitizing Sponsor: Open Knowledge Commons and Harvard Medical School

View Book Page: Book Viewer
About This Book: Catalog Entry
View All Images: All Images From Book

Click here to view book online to see this illustration in context in a browseable online version of this book.

Text Appearing Before Image:
of a pyometra, probably due to the pres-ence of gas-producing bacilli. I have seen but three cases of physometra, two complicating large sloughingsubmucous fibroids, and one associated with a pyometra due to a cancerouscervix. PHYSOMETRA. 663 Physometra Due to Cancer.—The patient was a black woman, sixty-one years of age, sent me by Dr. C. M. Cheston, of West Eiver, Md., in July,1890. Although she ceased to menstruate ten years before, she had had hemor-rhages for two years. She had no leucorrhea, but complained of a burningfeeling across the back and abdomen, and the hemorrhages, which continued,as a rule, for two days, were followed by a watery discharge. She had severaltimes been insane. The cervix was high up in the vagina and fixed to the left pelvic wall;on its right side, easily felt through the vagina and thin abdominal walls, wasa globular fluctuant tumor, about 10 cm. (4 inches) in diameter. The cervixwas the seat of a cancerous degeneration measuring 3 cm. (1-j inches) in

Text Appearing After Image:
Fig. 374.—Pyophysometra Due to Occlusion of the Cancerous Cervix. Note the thin distended uterine wall, containing pus in the lower part of its cavity, with a largegas space above. An explosion of gas took place as soon as the instrument broke through the barrierat the cervix. diameter, from which numerous shreds of tissue hung down into the vaginawith excavated areas between them, freely bleeding when touched. The cancer-ous tissue was first broken down with the fingers, followed by a sharp curette, 664 THE UTERUS AS A RETENTION CYST. and the base, which was superficial, was thoroughly cauterized; it appeared tobe one of the slow-growing cancers of old age. On making a bimanual examination to locate the fundus, the vaginalfinger suddenly entered a large smooth cavity, and this was signalized by anaudible report like the pop of a gun, with a rush of gas out of the sac, followedby 90 c.c. of thick, intensely fetid pus (pyophysometra). (See Fig. 374.) The body of the uterus was disten

Note About Images
Please note that these images are extracted from scanned page images that may have been digitally enhanced for readability – coloration and appearance of these illustrations may not perfectly resemble the original work.
By Internet Archive Book Images on 1906-01-01 00:00:00
tags